With the development of industry, the demand for mineral resources is increasing. At present, both developed and developing countries regard the possession of resources and development resources as strategic measures. Therefore, a large number of efficient and safe products have emerged in mining. Low-cost mining technologies and methods need to keep up with the pace of advanced technology and develop resources.
Intelligentization of underground mines
At present, the underground mines in the world are pursuing high efficiency, safety, mechanization level and automation level.
Swedish Kiruna iron ore, for example. Kiruna Iron Mine is famous for producing high grade (iron content exceeding 70%) iron ore and is currently one of the largest iron ore mines in the world. Its iron ore mining has a history of more than 70 years and has now been converted from open pit mining to underground mining. The intelligentization of Kiruna Iron Mine is mainly due to the commissioning of large-scale mechanical equipment, intelligent remote control systems, and modern management systems. The highly automated and intelligent mining systems and equipment are the key to ensuring safe and efficient mining.
1) Pioneering: Kiruna Iron Mine is jointly developed by shaft + ramp. The mine has 3 shafts for the improvement of ventilation, ore and waste rock. Personnel, equipment and materials are mainly transported from the slope by trackless equipment. The main lifting shaft is located in the lower part of the ore body. So far, the mining face and main transport system have been moved down 6 times. The current main transport level is at 1045 meters.
2) Drilling charge and blasting: The roadway boring adopts a rock drilling rig, and the trolley is equipped with a three-dimensional electronic measuring instrument, which can realize precise positioning of the drilling hole. The stop rock is made of SimbaW469 remote-controlled rock drilling rig from Atlas, Sweden, with a hole diameter of 150 mm and a maximum hole depth of 55 meters. The car uses a laser system for accurate positioning, unmanned, and can be continuously cycled for 24 hours, with an annual collapse of up to 3 million tons.
3) Remote loading and transportation of ore and lifting: The rock drilling, shipment and lifting of the Kiruna iron ore site have been intelligent and automated, and the rock drilling rig and scraper have been unmanned.
The ore is loaded with a Toro 2500E remote-controlled scraper with a single unit efficiency of 500 tons per hour. The underground transportation system has two types of tape transportation and automatic rail transportation. Orbital automatic transportation generally consists of 8 trains. The mine car is an automatic bottom unloading truck that is continuously loaded and unloaded. The belt conveyor automatically transports the ore from the crushing station to the metering device, and completes loading and unloading with the shaft bucket. The process is remote control.
4) Remote control ç ¼jet technology support reinforcement technology: The roadway support is supported by spray anchor net, which is completed by remote-controlled concrete jet machine. The anchor rod and steel mesh are installed using bolt trolley.
Soluble leaching technology is increasingly used
Second, leaching technology has been widely used in the recovery of low-grade copper , gold ore, uranium ore, etc. In the leaching technology, there are three categories of in-situ leaching, heap leaching and in-situ leaching.
The United States, Canada, Australia and other countries deal with 0.15%~0.45% low-grade copper ore, more than 2% copper oxide ore and 0.02%~0.1% uranium ore are basically recovered by heap leaching and in-situ blasting.
In the United States, for example, there are more than 20 mines in the United States that use in-situ blasting copper. For example, the Mine Mine in Nevada, the Zonia Copper Mine in Arizona has a daily copper production of 2.2 tons or more, and the Bronze Mine and the Copper Queen Mine in Montana have a daily production of 10.9 to 14.97 tons of copper. More than 20% of production, gold production exceeds 30%, and most of uranium production comes from leaching mining.
Deep mining technology
3. With the continuous reduction of resources, the depth of mining is getting deeper and deeper, and the depth of mining is below 1000 meters, which brings many difficulties and problems that are not encountered in shallow mining, such as increased ground pressure and increased rock temperature. The difficulties in upgrading, drainage, support, ventilation, etc. of the mine have also increased.
Non-mining depth of coal mines in China's current generally not more than 700 to 800 meters, but in recent years there have been some buried to a depth of about 1,000 meters of deposits being developed, melon copper deposit owned Tongling Nonferrous Metals Company, Jinchuan It belongs to it.
Mine environmental protection work and comprehensive management
4. In foreign countries, especially developed countries, comprehensive measures are adopted for the mine environment. There are strict technical standards for waste water, waste gas, waste residue, dust and noise discharged from mines. Many low-grade mines cannot be built and put into production because of the high cost of environmental protection.
At present, foreign countries also emphasize the establishment of waste-free mines and clean mines. The Walsm coal mine in the Ruhr industrial area in Germany is a successful example. Coal ash from coal washing plants and coal-fired coal ash and crushed underground waste rock are added to cement. After activation and agitation, the PM pump is used to hit the underground filling area, and the mine does not discharge any solid waste.
Filling mining technology is becoming more and more widely used
Different fillers are used depending on the situation.
The problem to be considered at the moment is filling -
The first is to concentrate on creating a practical and reliable system. Research and development of effective filling techniques to effectively combine filling operations with mining operations. Pay attention to the management of the filling system.
The second is to study the technology that can optimize the design of existing systems, study the particle size distribution that constitutes high-quality filling materials, and study the improved filling preparation process in hydrocyclone and crushing, and study to optimize the filling. Conveying techniques such as pressure loss, wear, and corrosion optimize the overall design of the filling system.
The third is to strengthen the quantitative understanding of the preparation, transportation, charging and discharging process of the filling, and lay the foundation for safe, stable and efficient mining. At present, the filling processes used in the world include: water sand filling, dry filling, high water solid filling, and cement filling. Cement filling is divided into: segmented tail sand hydraulic filling (high concentration self-slip conveying), other filling hydraulic filling (high concentration self-slip conveying), full tail sand paste self-slip filling and full tail sand paste pumping filling . Currently recommended internationally is the full tailings paste pumping filling.
At present, 12 mines in Canada have been filled with high-concentration paste, and new paste filling systems have been put into operation in South Africa and Australia. The new filling process will better meet the requirements of protecting resources, protecting the environment, improving efficiency and ensuring mine development. Filling mining will have broader prospects for mining development in the 21st century.
Ocean polymetallic nodules mining six
Polymetallic nodules occur in the seabed at a depth of about 3,000 to 5,000 meters. To be mined, there must be viable mining methods. Therefore, all countries in the world have given priority to the development of reliable mining methods, and have carried out a large number of experimental studies, and some even conducted deep-sea intermediate mining tests. From the late 1960s to the present, the ocean mining methods that have been developed and tested internationally are mainly divided into three types: continuous chain bucket (CLB) mining method, submarine remote control vehicle mining method and fluid lifting mining method.
Continuous chain bucket (CLB) mining method. This method was proposed by the Japanese in 1967. The main feature of CLB is that it can adapt to changes in water depth to maintain normal operation. However, the output of the CLB method can only reach 100t/d, which is far from the requirement of industrial mining. Therefore, the CLB mining law was abandoned in the late 1970s.
Submarine remote control vehicle mining method. This method was mainly proposed by the French. The submarine remote control car is an unmanned submersible mining vehicle, which is mainly composed of four major systems: mining, self-propelled, buoyancy control and ballast. Under the supervision of the sea mother ship, the mining vehicle sneaked into the seabed to collect tuberculosis according to the instructions. After filling the tuberculosis, it floated out of the water surface and went to the mother ship to accept the warehouse to remove the tuberculosis. The sea surface mother ship can usually control several mining vehicles to operate at the same time. The mining system has a large investment and the product value is not high. The French Ocean Tuberculosis Research and Development Association stopped research in 1983, but the mining principle of this mining vehicle is regarded as a promising acquisition technology.
Fluid lifting mining methods. At present, the internationally recognized fluid lifting mining method has the most industrial application prospects. The method is that after the mining ship arrives at the mining area, the concentrator and the riser are connected and gradually released into the sea vessel concentrator for collecting the tuberculosis in the seafloor sediment and performing preliminary treatment, and the hydraulic or pneumatic lifting method is adopted. The water in the tube moves upwards at a sufficient speed to transport the nodules to the surface mining vessel.
With the advent of the development of the ocean in the 21st century, ocean mining technology is particularly important. The development of modern high-tech has laid a bridge for the development of ocean resources. Its formation and development will have a positive and far-reaching impact on the world's marine economy, culture and human ocean consciousness.
In addition to the above six aspects, there are also natural mining technology in the mining industry, and the application is also expanding. In addition, a large number of new technologies have emerged in rock drilling and blasting. Mine rock mechanics and engineering have been used as a Independent disciplines play an increasingly important role in the construction and production of mines.
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